Wiring Diagrams Explained | How to Read Wiring Diagrams – Upmation (2022)

An electrical wiring diagram could be a single page schematic of how a ceiling fan should be connected to the power source and its remote switches.

A wiring diagram may include the wirings of a vehicle. For example, how the horns are powered and connected to the controller on your steering wheel.

Or an electrical wiring diagram can be a 200-page document including all the electrical wirings of an electrical control panel in a huge factory or plant.

As some rules of thumb will be applied to most of the wiring diagrams, in Part 1 of this multi-part article you’ll learn how to read a wiring diagram by means of an actual industrial control panel’s wiring diagram.

And in Part 2, you’ll learn how to read a PLC wiring diagram and its modules.

Spend Some Time on Understanding the Standards!

Wiring diagrams may follow different standards depending on the country they are going to be used.

They may have different layouts depending on the company and the designer who is designing that.

They also may be drawn by different ECAD software such as EPLAN or AutoCAD electrical. So, when you see a wiring diagram for the first time, you may need some time to analyze it and become familiar with its layout and symbols.

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Let’s start with an actual example of a wiring diagram.

The document we are going to check includes more than 140 pages but we’ll check only some of the pages as the rest of them are somehow similar.

First Things First! Wiring Diagram Symbols

Every wiring diagram includes:

– Hardware components,

– Power sources,

– Ground chassis,

– Terminals,

– Some wires of course!

– Numbers, letters, and maybe some nomenclatures.

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Normally the very first step to learn reading a wiring diagram is becoming familiar with the symbols of the equipment and each wiring diagram is supposed to have a page or two for this purpose.

This page is known as Legend and abbreviation page.

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In the Legend and Abbreviation page you can see:

– A three-phase AC electric motor symbol

– A solenoid valve symbol

– An MCCB with thermal and short circuit protection

– A contactor (the coil and its contacts)

and all the other electrical symbols you need to read the wiring diagram.

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Remember that these symbols may have some minor differences in different wiring diagrams depending on the ECAD software they have been designed with.

As an example, the Fuse in EPLAN Electric P8 (a Wiring Diagram Software) looks like this:

(Video) How to Read Electrical Diagrams | Wiring Diagrams Explained | Control Panel Wiring Diagram

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But in AutoCAD electrical, it looks like this:

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By the way, you’ll learn more symbols in the rest of this article and you’ll get used to these electrical symbols very soon!

Wiring Diagram Rules of Thumb!

Ok, let’s start with the first pageto see how much it could be easy to read and understand a wiring diagram.

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Rule #1: How to Follow a Wiring Diagram (Reading Direction)

First of all, there is a rule of thumb in standard wiring diagrams that you should read the diagram from left to right and from top-down.

Exactly like reading a book!

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But sometimes, designers make some exceptions to have a better layout such as this page.

So as an exception, we should start from the downside and this is where the three-phase power enters the panel.

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As a reminder, the voltage level and the frequency of the power depends on the country we’re implementing our project.

For example:

– In England or Austria, the voltage level is 400 volts with 50 hertz of frequency

– In the United States, a three-phase power source will produce 480 volts with 60 hertz of frequency.

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The power enters the terminal blocks with the “X0” terminal strip.

The terminal strip is a mark that refers to a group of terminal blocks with the same voltage level or the same purpose.

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From these terminal blocks, we move on to a three-pole circuit breaker with thermal and short circuit protection capability.

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Rule #2: Wiring Diagrams Are Drawn in the Neutral Condition

Every standard wiring diagram should be drawn in the neutral condition.

This means that all of the contacts, contactors, circuit breakers, etc., are shown in their normal or non-energized condition.

Therefore, when you see a closed contact in an electrical wiring diagram, that is a normally closed contact and the rest of the contacts should be open.

We have a great article about NO and NC contacts and their actual application examples that you can read it here.

(Video) How to Read PLC Wiring Diagram | PLC Wiring Tutorial for Beginners | PLC Panel Wiring Diagram

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How to Read Wiring Diagrams

Ok! Let’s continue reading.

After closing this circuit breaker manually, the power flows toward some power distributer bars, from which some branches can be taken.

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One of the branches goes into a two-pole circuit breaker.

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and from there powers a transformer.

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If you’ve noticed, there are some numbers on the wires.

These are called “wire tags”.

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What is a Wire Tag? (And Device Tag)

Wire Tags are the combination of some letters and numbers installed on the wire or cable and are used to show you to which device or terminal block a wire or a cable should be connected.

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Wire tags are very helpful in case of troubleshooting so that when a wire gets out of its connection point, you can easily look at the wiring diagram and figure out where it should be connected again.

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There are the tags for the devices within the panel as well.

If you were looking at the wiring diagram and you didn’t know what a device is, then you could find it in the panel using its tag.

Wiring Diagrams Explained | How to Read Wiring Diagrams – Upmation (20)

This transformer converts the 400 volts to a single-phase 230 volts.

Wiring Diagrams Explained | How to Read Wiring Diagrams – Upmation (21)

It is used to feed the power receptacle or socket, the heater, and the fan.

Wiring Diagrams Explained | How to Read Wiring Diagrams – Upmation (22)

The “-ST19” tag refers to a thermostat to turn on and off the heater or the fan on its specified temperature setpoints.

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You’ve also noticed the earthing chassis and its branches wherever it’s needed.

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How to Address a Component in Wiring Diagrams

Before we continue to the next page, you may ask what these numbers on top of the page are. This is a very good question!

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(Video) Crash Course on How to Read Electrical Schematics

Actually, these are the column numbers and they have divided each page of this drawing to 10 columns.

As you see, there are some devices in each column and we can use these column numbers in combination with the page number to address different devices, contacts, terminal blocks, and so on, in other pages.

Let me explain it by some examples!

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For instance, the main three-phase power is shown with some arrows and numbers on the top right-hand side of the page.

All of them have a 2.0 number just beside the arrow.

– By “2” it refers us to page two.

– By “0” it points out to the first column of page two.

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And there you go! It’s our power source on page two.

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As another example, the number below this contact says page 130 and column 6.

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I’ll turn to page 130 of the wiring diagram and this is column number 6.

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And there it is! The same tag, KA1306 as we had expected.

It looks like a coil. But not the coil of a contactor; the coil of a relay.

And how do I know that?! If you have seen the legend and abbreviation page of the drawing you know that the “-KA” is a nomenclature for a relay in this drawing.

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Below the coil, you see the 13-14 contact (NO Contact) of page two and also the other NO and NC contacts of this relay with the addresses they have been used in this drawing.

We’ll get back to this page again.

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On page two, the mains power source is feeding a 24-volt power supply and it provides us with a voltage of 24 with 10 amps of capacity.

Wiring Diagrams Explained | How to Read Wiring Diagrams – Upmation (33)

From there, we have extended this voltage using some terminal blocks so that we can deliver the power to different instruments, PLC cards, PLC CPU, or whatever device which needs 24 volts to power on.

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But wait! This part of the drawing, seems a little bit strange as all of these terminal blocks have the same tag of “XC”.

What are Double-Level Terminal Blocks?

Wiring Diagrams Explained | How to Read Wiring Diagrams – Upmation (35)

There are a variety of terminal blocks in the market. In this case, to save some space in the panel, we have used some double-Level terminal blocks.

Wiring Diagrams Explained | How to Read Wiring Diagrams – Upmation (36)

They occupy the same space as the ordinary terminal blocks but we can connect two wires to each side of them.

(Video) Wiring Diagram Structure of a Real-World Custom-Made Machine | Industrial Wiring Diagram

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In the following, we have a branch that delivers the 24 volts power to page 12 column zero, but with two interlocks!

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What is Electrical Interlocking?

An interlock means a condition.

For example, here, without having those interlocks enabled, our 24 v cannot reach page 12, column 0.

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Let’s turn to page 130 of the wiring diagram again to see what those conditions are.

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NOTE:Did you notice that we have to get back and forth between different pages? This is the only way we have to take to fully understand these drawings.

On page 130, we’ve a safety relay, and it will be used to protect people, material, and the machine itself when the machine is operating.

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Remember that the designer of this wiring diagram had to refer to the datasheet of this equipment to complete his job.

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In fact, reading the datasheet of the equipment is a very important and inevitable stage of designing a wiring diagram.

We should always do the same thing for all of the equipment used in the process.

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By the way, channels S11/S12 and S21/S22 are used to be connected to the safety components at the site (For example the safety barriers) and if the area is evacuated then these channels will be activated.

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As a result, the NO contacts of the Safety Relay (Output Contacts 13/14 and 23/24) become closed.

Therefore, our 13-14 NO contacts of the relays (KA1306 and KA1307) become closed.

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In this way, our 24-volt power will be transferred to page 12, column zero.

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Let’s pause this part here and we’ll continue the next part by reading and understanding the PLC, VFD, and their power and signal cabling section of this control panel wiring diagram.

You can read Part 2 of this article here.

Thanks for reading another article. Please spread the word by sharing this article:

FAQs

How do you read a wiring diagram? ›

The electrical schematics are read from left to right or from top to bottom. This is important to get right, as the signal direction indicates the flow of current in the circuit. It is then easy for a user to understand when there is a change in the course of the circuit.

How do you read a PLC wiring diagram? ›

Rule #1: You should read a PLC Panel wiring diagram from left-to-right and top-to-down, just like when you're reading a book. Rule #2: To understand the addressing system of a PLC panel wiring diagram use the combination of the provided column numbers and page numbers.

What are the four types of wiring diagram? ›

6.2: Types of Electrical Diagrams
  • Schematic Diagrams.
  • Wiring diagrams.
  • Block diagrams.
  • Pictorial diagrams.
11 Sept 2021

How do you read a SLD diagram? ›

When interpreting a single line diagram, you should always start at the top where the highest voltage is and work your way down to the lowest voltage. This helps to keep the voltages and their paths straight. To explain this easier, we have divided the single line into three sections.

What are the 6 most common symbols used for an electrical schematic diagram? ›

The Most Common Schematic Symbols Used in Electronics
  • Battery. The symbol for a battery is shown below. ...
  • Resistor. The schematic symbol of the resistor are drawn in two different ways. ...
  • Potentiometer. ...
  • Schematic Symbols of a Transistor. ...
  • Schematic Symbol for an Integrated Circuit. ...
  • Logic Gates. ...
  • Inductor. ...
  • Transformer.
8 Oct 2020

How do you identify PLC inputs and outputs? ›

In a PLC system there will usually be dedicated modules for inputs and dedicated modules for outputs. An input module detects the status of input signals such as push-buttons, switches, temperature sensors, etc.. An output module controls devices such as relays, motor starters, lights, etc.

What are the 4 main components of a PLC? ›

The main components of a PLC consist of a central processing unit (CPU), power supply, programming device, and input and output (I/O) modules. The CPU is the brain of the PLC and carries out programmed operations. These operations or outputs are executed based on signals and data provided from connected inputs.

What are the 5 components of a PLC? ›

The common components of the PLC unit are
  • Processor: The processor is also called the CPU which means central processing unit. ...
  • Rack/Mounting: A PLC unit is formed by combining a number of components. ...
  • Input Assembly: ...
  • Output Assembly: ...
  • Power Supply: ...
  • Programming Device/Unit:
21 Nov 2019

What are the 5 types of electrical wiring system? ›

5 Different Types of Electrical House Wiring Systems
  • Cleat Wiring. This wiring comprises of PVC insulated wires or ordinary VIR that are braided and compounded. ...
  • Casing and Capping Wiring. ...
  • Batten Wiring. ...
  • Lead Sheathed Wiring. ...
  • Conduit Wiring.

What is a basic wiring diagram? ›

A wiring diagram shows the relative layout of the components and the wire connections between them. This type of diagram shows the physical relation of all devices in the system, the conductor terminations between these devices, and are commonly used in motor control installations.

What are the 3 types of electrical wiring diagram? ›

Types of Electrical Diagrams or Schematics

There are three ways to show electrical circuits. They are wiring, schematic, and pictorial diagrams.

What does SLD in reading mean? ›

Dyslexia is included in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA, 2004) as a specific learning disability (SLD). Dyslexia impacts reading, specifically decoding and accurate and/or fluent word recognition and spelling.

What is SLD and MLD? ›

Three categories of SEN are associated with learning disability: moderate learning difficulty ( MLD ), severe learning difficulty ( SLD ) and profound multiple learning difficulty ( PMLD ).

What is the difference between SLD and schematic? ›

Single-line diagrams are where upper-level details like generators, main transformers, and large motors are shown. Schematic diagrams show the functionality of more mid-level electrical circuits without getting bogged down in the details of individual connections (which are shown on wiring diagrams).

What are the symbols used in circuit diagrams? ›

Electrical symbols are the most commonly used symbols in circuit diagramming. Amplifiers (denoted by triangle shapes) increase the output signal in your circuit. Capacitors (parallel lines) store energy in your system, while resistors (zigzag lines) reduce current flow.

What are the three rules to draw circuit diagram? ›

When drawing circuit diagrams, there are a few important rules to remember:
  • Cables and wires in a circuit are drawn as straight lines.
  • Wires should not cross over each other.
  • We need to use the correct symbols for each component in the circuit.
  • When drawn, the circuit forms a closed loop.

What are the 5 electrical symbols? ›

There are five commonly used symbols in Electrical – Switch, Wire, Contactor, Motor, Transformer. These symbols can be used in any electrical drawings. Switches are used for ON/OFF any control circuit.

What do the circuit symbols mean? ›

Circuit symbols and names are small images that represent an electrical or electronic device or function. Circuit symbols and names are used for creating diagrams. And these diagrams show how a circuit is connected. They are essential in designing circuits or making printed circuit boards for a project.

What are the 3 types of outputs that can be obtained on a PLC? ›

There are several types of solid state outputs available with PLC's. Three popular types are transistor, triac and TTL. All three of these output units will generally have a common terminal although triac output units are available in an isolated configuration.

What are the 3 main parts of a PLC? ›

These three PLC components are: processor, power supply, and an input/output (I/O) section. The processor, or the brain of the PLC system, is a solid-state device designed to perform a wide variety of production, machine tool, and process-control functions.

What are the two main inputs in PLC? ›

There are two main types of inputs: data inputs from devices and machines, and data inputs that are human-facilitated. The input data from sensors and machines are sent to the PLC. Inputs can include on/off states for things like mechanical switches, buttons, and encoders.

What are the 5 languages of PLC? ›

The five PLC programming languages defined in the IEC's standard are:
  • Ladder Logic.
  • Function Block Diagram.
  • Sequential Function Charts.
  • Structured Text.
  • Instruction List.
30 Aug 2022

What are the 4 critical questions of a PLC? ›

Popularized by Rick DuFour, the four critical questions of a PLC include:
  • What do we want all students to know and be able to do?
  • How will we know if they learn it?
  • How will we respond when some students do not learn?
  • How will we extend the learning for students who are already proficient?
22 Aug 2018

What are the 6 basic components of a PLC? ›

  • 6 Essential Characteristics of a PLC.
  • Shared mission, vision, values, goals. ...
  • Collaborative teams focused on learning. ...
  • Collective inquiry. ...
  • Action orientation and experimentation. ...
  • Commitment to Continuous improvement. ...
  • Results orientation.

What is basic PLC knowledge? ›

Basic PLC operations

PLCs are made up of input points or modules, output points or modules, and a CPU (central processing unit). Inputs accept a wide range of analog and digital signals from different sensors/ field devices and work to convert them into logic signals that are CPU compatible.

What are the 7 types of electricity? ›

Electricity takes different forms: coal, water, solar, wind, nuclear, hydro and solar.

What is the most common wiring type? ›

The most common type of home electrical wiring is the NM cable, also known as the Romex cable, after the most popular electrical wiring brand name. The NM cables contain three or more individual conductors, wrapped together in a sheathing, which is a flexible plastic jacket.

What is the most common wiring method? ›

The raceway and conductor method is one of the most common types of electrical wiring. It involves either a metallic or a nonmetallic conduit or tubing with multiple insulated phase.

What are the parts of a wiring diagram? ›

The common elements in a wiring diagram are ground, power supply, wire and connection, output devices, switches, resistors, logic gate, lights, etc. A list of electrical symbols and descriptions can be found on the "electrical symbol" page. A line represents a wire.

How do you identify a 3 way common wire? ›

Black wire: This is a hot wire that carries electricity from the power source to the first switch in a typical 3-way setup. It's also called the “common wire” or the “line wire.” Unless the breaker is off, this black wire is always hot.

How do I identify 3 wires? ›

Appliance Plugs or Power Cords

If you're looking at exposed wires: The neutral wire is identified by a white stripe, ribbing or white insulation. The hot (live) wire has no ribbing or stripe; it may have black or red insulation. If the cord has a green wire (rare), it's a ground wire.

What are the 3 main wires? ›

Live, neutral and earth mains wires

The plug contains three wires – the live, neutral and earth wires. In a plug, the live wire (brown) and the neutral wire (blue) are the two wires that form the complete circuit with a household appliance.

What is ASD and SLD? ›

The present study examined the role of language capacities in explaining differences in social information processing (SIP) among three school-age groups: high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD, IQ > 75), children with specific learning disorder (SLD), and children with typical development (TD).

What are the 5 basic reading skills? ›

There are five aspects to the process of reading: phonics, phonemic awareness, vocabulary, reading comprehension and fluency. These five aspects work together to create the reading experience. As children learn to read they must develop skills in all five of these areas in order to become successful readers.

What is the difference between SLD and LD? ›

The benefit of using an SLD is that it has lower coherence than the light of an LD, which enables coherence noise to be reduced. For example, if an SLD is used for light interference measurement, it reduces diffused reflection (speckle noise) on the surface of the object to measure.

What is an example of an SLD? ›

For example:

A specific learning disability in reading, also known as dyslexia. A specific learning disability in writing, also known as dysgraphia. A specific learning disability in mathematics, also known as dyscalculia.

What does Pmld stand for? ›

Find out about profound disabilities and how to get the right support and communication for someone with PMLD.

What is SLI and SLD? ›

Specific learning disability is the major or overriding disability condition that best describes the person's impairment. SLD. Speech or language impairment. Speech or language impairment is the major or overriding disability condition that best describes the person's impairment. SLI.

What is the difference between a wiring diagram and a schematic? ›

A schematic shows the plan and function for an electrical circuit, but is not concerned with the physical layout of the wires. Wiring diagrams show how the wires are connected and where they should located in the actual device, as well as the physical connections between all the components.

What is SLD wire? ›

In power engineering, a single-line diagram (SLD), also sometimes called one-line diagram, is a simplest symbolic representation of an electric power system.

Why is it important to know how do you read schematic diagrams? ›

Learning how to read an electrical schematic drawing is an important skill for maintenance workers and managers even if they aren't licensed electricians. Understanding schematic drawings helps identify faulty components, troubleshoot systems, and improve safety.

What do the numbers mean on wiring? ›

In AWG, the larger the number, the smaller the wire diameter and thickness. The largest standard size is 0000 AWG, and 40 AWG is the smallest standard size. It may also be called Brown & Sharpe wire gauge or simply the gauge of the wire. AWG is for single-strand, solid, round, electrically conductive wire.

How do you tell which wire is load and which is line? ›

Load Wire - Generally connected to the top half of your switch. If the wire is coming from the top of the switch box, it is likely your load wire. Line Wire - Generally connected to the bottom half of your switch. In some cases, line wires are marked with “line”, “pwr”, or a lightning bolt symbol.

What do electrical symbols mean? ›

Electrical symbols are a graphical representation of basic electrical and electronic devices or components. These Symbols are used in circuit and electrical diagrams to recognize a component. It is also called a schematic symbol.

What are the wire codes? ›

U.S. Electrical Wiring Color Codes
  • Phase 1 - Black.
  • Phase 2 - Red.
  • Phase 3 - Blue.
  • Neutral - White.
  • Ground - Green, Green with Yellow Stripe, or Bare Wire.

Which wire goes to which? ›

Basic Wire Color-Coding

A black or red-hot wire usually connects to a brass-colored screw terminal or black wire lead on electrical devices. A white neutral wire usually connects to a silver-colored terminal or white wire lead.

What are current symbols? ›

Current is usually denoted by the symbol I. Ohm's law relates the current flowing through a conductor to the voltage V and resistance R; that is, V = IR.

What happens if I mix up line and load? ›

With simple on-off light switches, mixing up the line and load wires won't affect the operation. The power will be either off or on. It does become critical is when installing a GFCI outlet. Because it contains an internal circuit breaker, incorrect installation can cause a safety failure.

How do you tell which wire is hot and which is not? ›

Hot wire is identified by its black casing. This is the main color of hot wire for most homes. However, other hot wires can red, blue, or yellow, although these colors can indicate a different function besides powering an outlet.

What are the different schematic symbols? ›

Schematic Symbols
  • Wires (Connected) This symbol represents a shared electrical connection between two components. ...
  • Wires (Not Connected) ...
  • DC Supply Voltage. ...
  • Ground. ...
  • No Connection (nc) ...
  • Resistor. ...
  • Capacitor, Polarized (Electrolytic) ...
  • Light-Emitting Diode (LED)

Videos

1. Why we use Relay in PLC Applications | Relay Wiring Diagram | Types of Relay-SPST, SPDT, DPST, DPDT
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2. How Electrical Control Panel Works | PLC Control Panel Basics | Electrical Panel Components
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3. How to Read Electrical Diagrams | Wiring Diagrams Explained | Control Panel Wiring Diagram (2)
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4. How Solid State Relays Work | Testing Solid State Relay with Multimeter | Solid State Relay Wiring
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5. NO vs NC | 5 PRACTICAL and IMPORTANT Points About Normally Closed and Normally Open Contacts
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6. Basic Electrical - Normally open and Normally closed
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